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Completed Research by CUS


Salma A. Shafi
SNV Netherlands Development Organization

Executive Summary

The Public Toilet demand scanning in Khulna City is a very timely project to address a very pressing present day need of the city people. For the growing number of urban poor employed in the informal sector and people who travel long distance for all kinds of purposes it is an urgent need. Rapid urbanization in Bangladesh is a boon to the economic growth and should be taken very positively. Alongside needs of the large section of population moving in the city space must be looked after by the authorities..But in reality this is not happening. The sections of people who are called the engines of growth do not have access to adequate shelter, education, health and sanitation.

Public toilets are a component of sanitation and an important health service is not adequately met with in any city in Bangladesh. NGO’s and Donors mainly provide Community Sanitation Services to the poor section of people living in slum and squatter settlements. Provision of public toilets goes further beyond as they are meant to meet the need of all those who need to stay out of home and move in the city. All section of people particularly those who travel long distances for work, education and business purposes stay outdoors for long hours need the support of public toilets as an essential service. In absence of such public services many people and not necessarily only the poor section of people defecate in public open spaces. This creates a nuisance which is unsocial, unhygienic and can be stated as uncivilized.

SNV Netherlands Development Organization in its objective to improve sanitation condition in 3 cities of Bangladesh has taken up the present study for, Public Toilet Demand Scanning in Khulna. The goal of the study is to develop a long term investment plan for public toilets in Khulna City and set an example for other cities and towns.

To attain the objectives the present study is conducting manifold activities. The major areas of activities are,

  1. Study operation and maintenance condition of the existing (24) public toilets in KCC
  2. Analyze the demand and scope for expansion of the service
  3. Study, Design and Develop Sustainable Management Models for Public Toilet Service in Khulna City.

The study report is the outcome of 12 weeks of research activity. An inception report with Initial Survey and Findings in the study area was submitted at the end of six weeks. The Draft Final report along with expansion was contains details of the Survey Findings. Improvements of the existing toilets design and management proposals are included.

The consultants conducted the study with respect to all aspects of the ToR. The consultants have tried to fulfill the SNV objectives and aim to promote the process of public toilet service an acceptable and reliable method of service delivery. In this context the idea and message conveyed in this report is that public toilets in urban Bangladesh should be friendly and available to the rapidly growing number of poor and middle class men, women, children and the disabled people. That they should be well designed and managed to meet the needs of people of various social strata is a target that this study aims to fulfill.


Public toilets should cater to the needs of all section of people and that public toilets should not be free for use. There is a difference between community toilets and public toilets their operation and management are separate issues and need to be dealt with separately.

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